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Top 10 Must-Know Literary Devices in Flamingo Poems for Class 12 Board Exam 2024

Quick Revision of Poems & Explore literary devices in Flamingo Poems.


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My Mother At Sixty Six

Summary of the poem:

  • The speaker is driving with her mother from their family home to Cochin.

  • The mother is described as dozing with an open mouth, looking ashen like a corpse.

  • The speaker realizes the painful truth that her mother is as old as she appears.

  • Despite the initial realization, the speaker chooses to push away the thought and focuses on the surroundings.

  • The speaker observes Young Trees, merry children spilling out of their homes, and the airport scene.

  • After the security check, the speaker looks at her mother again and notices her pale and wan appearance.

  • This triggers a familiar childhood fear in the speaker.

  • The poem ends with the speaker smiling and saying, "See you soon, Amma."


  • The theme of aging and the inevitable passage of time is prominent in the poem.

  • The speaker grapples with the realization of her mother's aging and mortality.


  • The poem conveys a poignant message about the bittersweet emotions associated with aging parents.

  • It explores the conflict between the reality of aging and the desire to avoid confronting the inevitable.

Literary Devices used in the poem with examples:

1. Imagery:

- Example: "doze, open mouthed, her face ashen like that of a corpse" - This vivid imagery conveys the physical condition of the mother and sets a somber tone.

2. Simile:

- Example:

  • "pale as a late winter’s moon" - The comparison of the mother's pallor to a late winter's moon adds a layer of desolation and emphasizes her frailty.

  • 'her face ashen like that of a corpse" - This simile compares the mother's pale face to the color of a corpse, emphasizing the lifelessness and frailty.

3. Symbolism/Personification

- Example:

  • "Young Trees sprinting" - The young trees could symbolize the passage of time and the growth and vitality of youth in contrast to the aging mother.

  • The word 'sprinting' also indicates that trees have been personified here.

4. Irony:

- Example: 'all I did was smile and smile and smile......'

The speaker smiles repeatedly in the end despite the underlying sadness, creating an ironic contrast between the outward expression and the inner emotional turmoil.

5. Alliteration:

- Example: "see you soon, Amma" - The repetition of the "s" sound in "see" and "soon" creates a soft and soothing effect, contrasting with the emotional weight of the poem.

6. Enjambment:

- Example: "doze, open mouthed, her face / ashen like that / of a corpse" - The enjambment in these lines creates a flowing and continuous rhythm, emphasizing the mother's appearance.

These literary devices contribute to the emotional depth and richness of the poem, enhancing the reader's experience and understanding of the themes explored.

For NCERT | CBE Short Questions Pls Click the following Link.

Keeping Quiet

Quick Revision

Stanza 1:

  • Counting to twelve is proposed as an action.

  • A call for collective silence and stillness is emphasized.

  • The suggestion is to refrain from speaking in any language and reduce physical movements.

Stanza 2:

  • Envisions a unique, exotic moment on Earth.

  • Desires a break from haste, engines, and constant activity.

  • Describes the potential beauty in a sudden, collective stillness.

Stanza 3:

  • Imagines fishermen and the man gathering salt in a state of non-harm and contemplation.

  • Contrasts the potential stillness with the typical harshness of their activities.

  • Highlights the transformative power of the suggested moment.

Stanza 4:

  • Addresses those who engage in destructive actions like preparing "green wars" with gas and fire.

  • Envisions a change in behaviour - putting on clean clothes and walking with brothers in the shade.

  • Advocates for a temporary pause in activities that lead to harm.

Stanza 5:

  • Clarifies that the proposed action should not be misunderstood as total inactivity.

  • Emphasizes that life is the essence and the focus should be on living.

  • Rejects the idea of aligning with death and underscores the importance of vitality

Stanza 6:

  • Criticizes the single-minded pursuit of keeping lives constantly in motion.

  • Suggests that embracing a moment of doing nothing can lead to a profound silence.

  • Raises the possibility of interrupting the sadness caused by not understanding ourselves.

Stanza 7:

  • Considers the Earth as a potential teacher.

  • Draws parallels between moments when everything seems dead and later proves to be alive.

  • Reiterates the act of counting to twelve as the poem's conclusion.


The theme revolves around stillness, reflection, and the potential for positive change in the world through a moment of quiet contemplation.

Message of the Poem:

The poem encourages a temporary halt to human activities, particularly destructive ones, to foster understanding, peace, and a connection with life. It suggests that embracing silence can lead to a deeper appreciation for existence and a shift away from destructive behaviours.

Literary Devices:

Imagery: Descriptions like "Fishermen in the cold sea," and "man gathering salt" paint vivid pictures, enhancing the reader's visualization.

Metaphor: "Prepare green wars" serves as a metaphor for environmental destruction, contrasting with the idea of walking in the shade doing nothing.

Irony: The mention of those who "prepare green wars" putting on "clean clothes" is ironic, highlighting the contrast between destructive actions and the appearance of innocence.

Repetition: The repetition of the phrase 'Those who prepare green wars, wars with gas, wars with fire..'

Symbolism: The act of counting to twelve represents a structured, measured pause, emphasizing the significance of this moment.

Alliteration: This is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words in close proximity.


  • "we will" and "we would" - repetition of the 'w' sound.

  • "sudden strangeness" - repetition of the 's' sound.

  • "his hurt hands" - repetition of the 'h' sound.

  • "wars with" and "clean clothes" - repetition of the 'w' and 'c' sounds.

  • "we were, so single-minded" - repetition of the 's' sound.

Anaphora: Anaphora is the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or lines.


  • "Let’s" is repeated at the beginning of two consecutive lines, emphasizing the imperative nature of the poet's suggestion to not speak and to stop for one second.

Assonance: Assonance involves the repetition of vowel sounds within nearby words.


  • "victory with no survivors" - repetition of the 'o' sound.

  • ''clean clothes" - repetition of the 'e' sound.

  • "Now we will count to twelve" - repetition of the 'o' sound.


Enjambment occurs when a sentence or phrase runs over from one line to the next without a pause.

Example : "and for once could do nothing, perhaps a huge silence" - the idea flows seamlessly from one line to the next, contributing to the fluidity and continuous rhythm of the poem.


For CBE -Based Questions & NCERT Solution along with Detailed Explanation of the poem Keeping Quiet, Text Explanation , NCERT Solution, CBQs (


A Thing of Beauty

Quick Revision

Stanza 1:

- A thing of beauty brings eternal joy.

- Its beauty increases and never fades away.

- It provides a peaceful shelter and induces sweet dreams, health, and tranquility.

Stanza 2:

- Despite challenges and dark times, people create a flowery band every morning to stay connected to the earth.

- Beauty has the power to lift the spirits and dispel darkness from our souls.

- Nature, including the sun, moon, trees, and daffodils, holds such beauty.

Stanza 3:

- Various elements of nature, like clear rills and musk-rose blooms, offer refreshing shelter against the heat.

- The grandeur of imagined destinies for the mighty dead and the beauty in tales form an endless source of inspiration.

2) Message:

The poem "A Thing of Beauty" by John Keats emphasizes the enduring power of beauty to bring joy and inspiration to life. Despite the challenges and darkness in the world, the poem suggests that beauty, whether found in nature or in human creations, has the ability to uplift and sustain the human spirit. The imagery of nature, the creation of a "flowery band," and the idea of beauty dispelling darkness convey a message of hope and the transcendent nature of aesthetic experiences.

Literary Devices

1. Alliteration:

- The use of consonant sounds at the beginning of two closely positioned words or in successive words.


  • 'Noble nature,' and the 's' in 'Some shape.'

  • 'Sprouting Shady'

  • 'Simple sheep,' and 'Cooling covert.'

2. Anaphora:

- The repetition of the same word in two consecutive lines,'


Of noble natures'

'Of all the unhealthy.'

3. Antithesis:

- The juxtaposition of opposing words,

Example : 'Old and young.'

4. Metaphor:

- The metaphorical use of 'Immortal drinks' to convey that beautiful natural objects endure like an everlasting beverage.

- Describing the act of creating a 'flowery band' as a metaphor for the binding influence of beautiful things in our lives.

- Comparing the calmness of a 'bower Quiet' to the soothing effect of beautiful things.

5. Inversion:

- The reversal of the typical word order, as demonstrated in the phrase 'Are we wreathing a flowery band.'

6. Imagery:

  • Evoking imagery with phrases like 'Bushes full of musk roses' creating vivid mental pictures.

  • Depicting God's benevolence with the image of 'Pouring unto us from the heaven’s brink.'

  • Utilizing imagery to describe trees offering shade ('Sprouting shady boon'), the growth of daffodils ('Daffodils with the green world they live in'), and pristine river streams ('Clear rills').

  • Creating a sensory effect by stringing together beautiful things in 'A flowery band to bind us.'


For NCERT/CBE-Based Questions of the Poem , visit the following URL


A Roadside Stand


Literary Devices


Examples :

  • The poet has used "polished traffic" to refer to the rich city dwellers.

  • The poet has used "selfish cars" to describe the city-dwellers as selfish.


  • A roadside stand that too pathetically pled

  • Sadness is personified with the phrase "sadness that lurks near the open window there."


  • Trusting Sorrow


  • ‘Greedy good-doers’

  • ‘beneficent beasts’ of prey



1. The prominent sound of the vowel 'o' in - "But for some of the money, the cash, whose flow supports."

2. Prominent sound of the vowel 'i' in - "The flower of cities from sinking and withering faint."

3. Prominent sound of the vowel 'i' - "And give us the life of the moving-pictures promise."


- The repetition of the letter 'p' in "pathetically pled."

- Repetition of the letter 'G' in "greedy good," 'B' in "beneficent beasts," and 'B' in "be bought."

Transferred Epithet:

  • The poet has used "polished traffic" to refer to the rich city dwellers.

  • The poet has used "selfish cars" to describe the city-dwellers as selfish.


1. The word "wrong" has been repeated in the sentence ' Of signs that with N turned wrong and S turned wrong

2. The word "sleep" has been repeated in the sentence ' And by teaching them how to sleep they sleep all day'

3. The words "country" has been repeated as in the sentence 'No, in country money, the country scale of gain'


For Detailed Explanation of the poem , NCERT solution & CBE-Based Questions , Visit the following link


Aunt Jennifer's Tigers


Literary Devices


  • The poet has given a visual description of the tiger - "Bright topaz denizens of a world of green."

  • Imagery is used again in the lines, "The tigers in the panel that she made / Will go on prancing, proud and unafraid.


  • The poet has used a metaphor to show the vibrant yellow colour of the tigers - "The poet has used bright topaz to show the vibrant yellow colour of the tigers."


  • The repetition of the letter 'c' in "chivalric certainty."

  • Alliteration is used again with the repetition of the letter 'f' in "fluttering fingers."

  • The repetition of the letter 'p' in "prancing proud."


  • Prominent sound of consonant 's' in " Aunt Jennifer's tigers prance across a screen."


  • Prominent sound of the vowel 'e' in "They do not fear the men beneath the tree."

  • Assonance is used again with the prominent sound of the vowel 'i' in "Aunt is dead, her terrified hands will lie."

  • Prominent sound of the vowel 'O' in "go on prancing, proud and unafraid."


- It is the repetition of a word at the start of two or more consecutive lines


"They do not fear the men beneath the tree;

They pace in sleek chivalric certainty."


- The poet has personified the ring by using the word "sit" for it.


The poet has employed hyperbole by exaggerating about the ring's massive weight.

Example: The massive weight of Uncles wedding band


  • A paradox is present in the line: "Here, someone whose fingers are fluttering is creating something that requires certainty."

  • Another paradox is highlighted with the contrast between Aunt Jennifer's fear and weakness and her tigers' fearlessness and pride.

  • In the context of the poem, a paradox is also evident in the idea that a woman who was tortured and mastered by her husband has created something free.

Transferred Epithet:

The poet used "terrified hands" to show that Aunt Jennifer was terrified even after her death.

Example: When Aunt is dead, her terrified hands will lie


There is a contrast between Aunt Jennifer and her tigers, emphasizing Aunt Jennifer's weakness and fear compared to the fearless and proud nature of her tigers.


For Detailed Explanation of the Poem, NCERT & CBE-based Questions, click the following link




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