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For 2024 Board Exam
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Data Interpretation | Analytical Paragraph| How to Write?

Updated: Nov 14

Data interpretation is a skill to understand the given data about certain topics in the form of pie charts, tables or bar-graphs.

The topics might include the comparative data on the following:

  • Online Versus Offline mode of teaching learning.

  • No. of Road Accidents in India.

  • Obsession of Children on different gadgets.

  • Homework loads of students.

  • Duration of onscreen time of the adolescents.

Tips for writing

  • A paragraph is written keeping the facts and figures in mind and /or quoting them.

  • Compare the given data with the previous years and write the comparative report by mentioning the data.

  • While making comparison mention the year and data of that year with the current year and data.

  • Draw the conclusion in terms of summing it up towards the end of the paragraph.

How to Interpret Data from a Pie Chart?

  • Interpreting data from a pie chart or bar graph is a fundamental skill. Here's a simple guide for interpreting data from both types of visualizations:

  • A pie chart represents parts of a whole. Each "slice" of the pie corresponds to a category, and the size of the slice indicates the proportion of the whole it represents.

Identifying Categories:

  • Look at the labels or legend to understand what each slice represents. Each category should be labeled, and the labels usually indicate what the data is about.

Analyzing Proportions:

  • Examine the size of each slice. The larger the slice, the larger the proportion of the whole it represents. Compare the sizes of different slices to understand the relative importance of each category.

Highlighting Percentages

  • Some pie charts include percentages on each slice. These percentages indicate the proportion of the whole represented by each category. This can be a helpful way to quantify the data.

Spotting Trends

  • Identify any trends or patterns. Are certain categories much larger or smaller than others? Are there any categories that stand out because of their size or position in the chart?


Let's consider a simple example of a pie chart representing the distribution of favorite fruits among a group of students. The data is as follows:

- Apples: 30%

- Bananas: 25%

- Oranges: 20%

- Grapes: 15%

- Strawberries: 10%

Now, let's break down how to interpret this pie chart:

1. Understanding the Basics:

- The pie chart represents the total preferences of all students for these five fruits.

2. Identifying Categories:

- Each slice of the pie corresponds to a different fruit. In this case, we have slices for apples, bananas, oranges, grapes, and strawberries.

3. Analyzing Proportions:

- The size of each slice indicates the proportion of students who prefer that fruit. Apples are the most preferred (30%), followed by bananas (25%), and so on.

4. Highlighting Percentages:

- If the chart includes percentages on each slice, you can easily see that apples are the favorite of 30% of the students, bananas are the favorite of 25%, and so forth.

5. Spotting Trends:

- The trend here is that apples are the most preferred fruit, while strawberries are the least preferred. This is evident from the larger slice for apples and the smaller slice for strawberries.

In this way, you can interpret the data in a pie chart by visually assessing the sizes of the slices and understanding the proportions they represent.

Here's a graphical representation of what the pie chart might look like:

How to Read a Bar Graph ?

1. Understanding the Basics:

- A bar graph uses bars to represent different categories or groups. The length of each bar corresponds to the quantity it represents.

2. Reading the Axes:

- Identify the axes of the graph. The horizontal axis (x-axis) typically represents categories or groups, while the vertical axis (y-axis) represents the quantity being measured.

3. Analyzing Bar Lengths:

- Look at the length of each bar. Longer bars indicate a larger quantity, while shorter bars indicate a smaller quantity. Compare the lengths of different bars to understand the relative magnitudes.

4. Examining Patterns:

- Check for patterns or trends. Are there any bars that are notably higher or lower than others? Are there consistent patterns across different categories?

5. Considering Scale:

- Pay attention to the scale of the axes. Sometimes, the scale can be adjusted to exaggerate differences. Ensure that you understand the scale before drawing conclusions.

Data Interpretation of the above Bar Graph

Title: Teenagers' Smartphone and Tablet Usage Across the Globe

The given data in the form of the above bargraph represents data on smartphone and tablet usage among teenagers across different regions for a high school student in the age group of 15-16 years.

1. Understanding the Graph:

- This bar graph compares the usage of smartphones and tablets among teenagers in five different regions: North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa.

2. Smartphone Usage

The green bars represent the percentage of teenagers in each region who use smartphones. For example, in North America, about 80% of teenagers use smartphones. Similarly, in Europe, the percentage is 75%.

3. Tablet Usage:

- The blue bars represent the percentage of teenagers in each region who use tablets. For instance, in North America, around 30% of teenagers use tablets. In Europe, it's about 25%.

4. Comparing Usage:

- Notice that in all regions, more teenagers use smartphones compared to tablets. The height of the green bars (smartphones) is generally higher than the blue bars (tablets).

5. Regional Differences:

- Compare the heights of the bars across regions to see where smartphone and tablet usage is more common. For instance, smartphone usage is highest in Asia (around 90%), while tablet usage is highest in Asia as well (around 40%).

6. Overall Trends:

The stacked nature of the bars shows the total technology usage (smartphones + tablets). You can observe that the combined usage is generally higher, reflecting that many teenagers use both smartphones and tablets.

The percentages represent the proportion of teenagers using each device in each region. For instance, if 80% of teenagers in North America use smartphones, it means that out of 100 teenagers, 80 use smartphones.


This graph suggests that smartphones are widely used by teenagers across the globe, with Asia having the highest usage. Tablets, while less popular than smartphones, still show significant usage, especially in Asia. In summary, this bar graph provides a visual comparison of smartphone and tablet usage among teenagers in different regions, offering insights into technology preferences and trends across the globe.

You can also write a data interpretation or analyze the in a single paragraph.

Sample Data Interpretation 1

A survey was conducted by students of Golden Era Public school regarding the importance of Examinations, from classes VIII-XI std. Based on the information given below, taking ideas from unit' Children' along with your own ideas, write a short composition of 80 words, titled ' Examinations- with a difference.'

Examinations With a Difference

Examinations have always meant stress and strain for students as well as their parents. A large majority of students i.e. 41% according to a survey believe that exams should not be based on annual exams only, but also on extracurricular activities included in the school curriculum. Only 15% believe in the benefits of present-day exam system. Some have no faith in them and want them to be abolished forthwith. They only form nine percent of the survey. 15% respondents believe in the benefits of present-day exam system. Some have no faith in them and want them to be abolished forthwith. They only form nine percent of the survey. Some respondents to the tune of 15% think that reducing the syllabus would help. There is no consensus, but some change is definitely required.

Sample 2

Delhi is witnessing an unprecedented rise in vehicles. Given below is an economic survey conducted by a newspaper which highlights the problems of the people. The biggest drawback of this vehicular growth has been overpopulation leading to traffic jam and other accompanying problems. Study the following data and make a report on the topic ' Vehicular Traffic and Air Pollution.'

Vehicular Traffic and Air Pollution.'

In one year, Delhi added 3.63 lakh vehicles; fumes emitted responsible for 72% or air pollution. Delhi, the capital of India, is grappled with chronic air pollution caused by unprecedented car boom. In one year, Delhi added 3.63 lakh vehicles between the years 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. This boom does not only cause traffic congestion which add hours to commuting and raises tempers, but also health hazards. There is a corresponding rise in pollution which has risen as high as 70%. Air pollution leads to all kinds of diseases-Asthma being on top of the list. only Metros and underground passages will help Delhi put a curb on vehicles on the road.

(Reference: Goyal's Assignment in Communicative English Writing from Goyal Brothers)

Exercise Questions for Practice

Q1. The bar graph given below contains data related to technology used extensively nowadays. Study the data carefully and summaries it in 100 words.

Value points:

• Number of user

• Types of users

• Total%

Q2. The bar graph given below shows nutrient content of some common food items. Briefly summarise the data making appropriate comparisons in about 100 words. (5 Marks)

Q3. You are Anuj/Anuja , a student. You are concerned about rising teenage obesity. You have seen the pie diagram given below telling about the leisure time activities amongst teenagers. Use your own ideas & interpret the data in about 100 words.

Q4`. You are Anuj /Anuja , a student. You have come across the pie chart given below showing the major causes of death among children under the age of five years all over the world. Use your own ideas and interpret the data in about 100 words.

Q5. Seema Mehta conducted a survey in her colony on smoking. The results are as follows. Study the following information and write a short composition titled 'Smoking – the Greatest Health Hazard' in about 100 words.

Q6. The following pie-chart represents the reading habits among teenagers across the globe. Write an analytical paragraph based on it.

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