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A Truly Beautiful Mind | NCERT SOLUTION

LESSON ARCHITECTURE

Theme

Story-At-A-Glance

NCERT Solution

Extra Questions for Practice


Theme:

  • The theme of the lesson is the gradual build-up of Einstein’s genius and how his theories revolutionized our understanding of space, time and the world around us.

  • The story also provides insight into Einstein’s views regarding the misuse of atomic bombs, and his fear about massive destruction in the run up to World War II.

  • We also come to know about the efforts taken by him to restore peace by putting an end to arms build-up.


STORY AT A GLANCE


1. Birth of Albert Einstein : Albert Einstein was born on 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Germany. He played alone most of the time and loved mechanical toys. In his early years he was considered ordinary, with no potential for success.

2. His Early Childhood: His mother made him play the violin the violin at the age of six. Soon he became a gifted amateur violinist.

3. His Days in School: He went to a high school in Munich and was a good student. However, he had disregard for the school’s regimentation and had differences with his teachers. At the age of 15, he left the school for good.

4. His Meeting with Mileva Maric in Zurich: When he was studying Physics and Mathematics at the University, he developed liking for his fellow student Mileva. He worked as a teaching assistant in 1900 and gave private lesions. In 1902 he landed a regular job for himself as a technical expert in the patent office in Bern. In 1903 he married Mileva Maric.

5. Publication of his Theory of Relativity : When Einstein got a job at the Bern paten t office, he devoted most of his time developing his research ideas. In 1905 he wrote a paper on the Special Theory of Relativity, according to which time and distance are not absolute. In 1915 he published his General Theory of Relativity, which provided a new interpretation of gravity.

6. His Marital Conflict and Separation: After sixteen years of married life in 1919, Einstein’s marriage to Mileva ended in divorce. Einstein then married his cousin Elsa the same year.

7. His Shot to International Fame: After his publication of his paper- General Theory of Relativity - in 1915, he became an internationally renowned physicist. Among the accolades he received, the most prominent one being the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.

8. Einstein’s letter to American President Franklin D. Roosevelt : Einstein moved to the US after the Nazis came to power in Germany. After five years nuclear fission was discovered in Berlin. At the beginning of the World War II when the news came to surface that the Nazis were working on the atomic bomb, he wrote to Roosevelt about the destructive effects of nuclear bomb. However, the Americans developed the atomic bomb in a secret project of their own to counter the attack by the Japanese and in August 1945 dropped it on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

9. Einstein’s Efforts to Restore Peace and Harmony in the world: He wrote a public letter to the United Nations where he proposed the formation of a world government. Over the next decade, he used his popularity to campaign for peace and democracy. Einstein is regarded not only as a scientific genius but also as a visionary and world citizen.


NCERT SOLUTION

Thinking About the Text ( Page 50)


Here are some headings for paragraphs in the text. Write the number(s) of the paragraph(s) for each title against the heading. The first one is done for you.


i) Einstein’s equation 9

ii) Einstein meets his future wife 7

iii) The making of a violinist 3

iv) Mileva and Einstein’s mother 10

v) A letter that launched the arms race 15

vi) A desk drawer full of ideas 8

vii) Marriage and divorce 11

2. Who had these opinions about Einstein?

(i) He was boring.

Ans: Einstein’s playmates.


(ii) He was stupid and would never succeed in life.

Ans: His headmaster


(iii) He was a freak.

Einstein’s mother


3. Explain what the reasons for the following are.


(i) Einstein leaving the school in Munich for good.


Ans: Einstein left the school in Munich as he hated the strict disciplinarian approach of the school. He also had differences with his teachers.


(ii) Einstein wanting to study in Switzerland rather than in Munich.


Switzerland being more liberal than Munich, Einstein wanted to study there.


(iii) Einstein seeing in Mileva an ally.


Einstein made an alliance with Mileva as she too did not care for the philistines or people who did not appreciate art, literature or music.


(iv) What do these tell you about Einstein?


Einstein loved being free and open-minded. He valued humanity and longed for peace and harmony in the world.


4. What did Einstein call his desk drawer at the patent office? Why?


Ans: Einstein called his desk drawer ‘bureau of theoretical physics’ because he kept all his theory papers inside that bureau.


5. Why did Einstein write a letter to Franklin Roosevelt?


Ans: Einstein wrote a letter to Franklin Roosevelt so that he could warn the American President about the harmful effects of a single atomic bomb which has a devastating effect on a place and its neighbouring areas.


6. How did Einstein react to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?


Ans: Einstein was deeply shaken by the extent of the destruction caused due to the bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This time he wrote a public missive to the United Nations and proposed the formation of a world government to restore love and peace in the world.


7. Why does the world remember Einstein as a “world citizen’?


Ans: Einstein is remembered as a’ World Citizen’ for his untiring work in establishing peace and harmony in the world. He was agitating for an end to the arms buildup and became involved in campaign for peace and democracy.


8. Here are some facts from Einstein’s life. Arrange them in chronological order.


[ ] Einstein publishes his special theory of relativity.

[ ] He is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

[ ] Einstein writes a letter to U.S. President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and warns against Germany’s building of an atomic bomb.

[ ] Einstein attends a high school in Munich.

[ ] Einstein’s family moves to Milan.

[ ] Einstein is born in the German city of Ulm.

[ ] Einstein joins a university in Zurich, where he meets Mileva.

[ ] Einstein dies.

[ ] He provides a new interpretation of gravity.

[ ] Tired of the school’s regimentation, Einstein withdraws from school.

[ ] He works in a patent office as a technical expert.

[ ] When Hitler comes to power, Einstein leaves Germany for the United States.

CHRONOLIGAL ORDER

Ans:

1. Einstein is born in the German city of Ulm.

2. Einstein attends a high school in Munich.

3. Einstein’s family moves to Milan.

4. Tired of the school’s regimentation, Einstein withdraws from school.

5. Einstein joins a university in Zurich, where he meets Mileva.

6. He works in a patent office as a technical expert.

7. Einstein publishes his special theory of relativity.

8. He provides a new interpretation of gravity.

9. He is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

10. When Hitler comes to power, Einstein leaves Germany for the United States.

11. Einstein writes a letter to U.S. President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and warns against Germany’s building of an atomic bomb.

12. Einstein dies.

I. Here are some sentences from the story. Choose the word from the brackets which can be substituted for the italicized words in the sentences.

1. A few years later, the marriage faltered. (failed, broke, became weak).

Ans: became weak

2. Einstein was constantly at odds with people at the university. (on bad terms, in disagreement, unhappy)

Ans: in disagreement

3. The newspapers proclaimed his work as “a scientific revolution.” (declared, praised, showed)

Ans: declared

4. Einstein got ever more involved in politics, agitating for an end to the arms buildup. (campaigning, fighting, supporting)

Ans: campaigning

5. At the age of 15, Einstein felt so stifled that he left the school for good. (permanently, for his benefit, for a short time)

Ans: permanently

6. Five years later, the discovery of nuclear fission in Berlin had American physicists in an uproar. (in a state of commotion, full of criticism, in a desperate state)

Ans: in a state of commotion

7. Science wasn’t the only thing that appealed to the dashing young man with the walrus moustache. (interested, challenged, worried)

Ans: interested

II. Study the following sentences.


• Einstein became a gifted amateur violinist, maintaining this skill throughout his life.

• Letters survive in which they put their affection into words, mixing science with tenderness.

The parts in italics in the above sentences begin with –ing verbs, and are called participial phrases. Participial phrases say something more about the person or thing talked about or the idea expressed by the sentence as a whole.


For example:

Einstein became a gifted amateur violinist. He maintained this skill throughout his life.

Complete the sentences below by filling in the blanks with suitable participial clauses. The information that has to be used in the phrases is provided as a sentence in brackets.


1. the firefighters finally put out the fire. (They worked round the clock.)

2. She watched the sunset above the mountain, (She noticed the colours blending softly into one another.)

3. The excited horse pawed the ground rapidly, (While it neighed continually.)

4. I found myself in Bangalore, instead of Benaras. (I had taken the wrong train.)

5. I was desperate to get to the bathroom. (I had not bathed for two days)

6. The stone steps, needed to be replaced. (They were worn down).

7. The actor received hundreds of letters from his fans, (They asked him to send them his photograph.)


Ans:


1. Working round the clock, the firefighters finally put out the fire.

2. She watched the sunset above the mountain, noticing the colours blending softly into one another.

3. The excited horse pawed the ground rapidly, while neighing continually.

4. Having taken the wrong train, I found myself in Bangalore, instead of Benaras.

5. Not having bathed for two days, I was desperate to get to the bathroom.

6. The stone steps, being worn down needed to be replaced.

7. The actor received hundreds of letters from his fans, asking him to send them his photograph.


EXTRA QUESTIONS TO BE ADDED SOON

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Monojoy Dey
Monojoy Dey
11. Aug. 2020

Good

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