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For 2024 Board Exam
CBSE Competency Based Questions:
Class 10
Class 12

Quick Revision | Board Exam 2024 | English Core

Recap the Most Important Questions from the Whole Syllabus.

Flamingo Prose

The Last Lesson

Q1. What did Franz notice that was unusual about the school that day?

Ans: Unlike other days in the school there was no bustle, no lessons repeated in unison. He could see his classmates being aready seated in their places. Mr. Hamel addressed Franz softly and asked him to go to his place very quickly. Mr. Hamel was dressed in his beautiful green coat, his frilled shirt and little black cap, which he normally wore on inspection days. The backbenches of the classroom were occupied by the village elders who looked very grave on that day.

Q2. The people in this story suddenly realize how precious their language is to them. What show you this? Why does this happen?

Ans: It shows the eruption of patriotic fervor among the people. The imposition of German language on the people of Alsace and Lorraine further strengthened their love for French. They felt that their freedom of expression in their motherland has been held in hostage by the Germans. This happens because people come together during time of identity crisis and try their utmost best to rescue their motherland and mother tongue from the aggressor. Their love for the country and their fellow countrymen suddenly get revamped during such emergency.

Q3. Faranz thinks, ‘Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?’ What could this mean?

Ans: This sentence could possibly mean that whatsoever hard the imperial power tries to impose their culture on the French, the French would hold fast to their language and remain loyal to it. As they cannot tame a pigeon to sing in German, so it would be very hard for them to embed the German language in the lives of the people of Alsace and Lorraine.

Q4. How did M. Hamel say farewell to his students and the people of the town?

Ans: M. Halmel bade farewell in a solemn and grave manner. He declared in the class that as the Province of Alsace and Lorraine passed off into the hands of Germans, it was their last French lesson on that day. From the next day onwards, Germany would be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. He requested the class to treasure French in their heart as language is the key to the prison of imperial power.


Long Questions 120 words | 5 Marks

Q5. What impact did the Franco-Prussian War have on the school in the village of Alsace, France? Substantiate with reference to the text.


1. Loss of Autonomy and Cultural Suppression

The Franco-Prussian War had a profound impact on the school in the village of Alsace, leading to the loss of autonomy and cultural suppression. The mention of Prussian soldiers drilling in the open field near the school indicates the occupation of Alsace by the Prussians. This occupation resulted in the imposition of German as the sole language of instruction in schools, as mentioned in M. Hamel's announcement during the last French lesson.

2. Drastic Change in Language Instruction Policies

The text explicitly states that the order from Berlin dictated that only German would be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. This drastic change in language instruction policies reflected the Prussians' attempt to erode the French cultural and linguistic identity of the region. The impact on the school was immediate, as M. Hamel declared the last French lesson, signifying the end of an era of French language education in Alsace.

3. Emotional Response and Realization

The announcement of the change in language policy evoked strong emotions among the residents, students, and even M. Hamel himself. The realization of the impending loss of their language and cultural heritage became apparent during M. Hamel's last lesson. The text portrays the shock and sorrow felt by the community members, emphasizing the significance of language in shaping their identity and connecting them to their French heritage.

4. Symbolism in M. Hamel's Attire

M. Hamel's choice to wear formal clothes, including a beautiful green coat and an embroidered black silk cap, on the day of the last lesson serves as a symbolic representation of the gravity of the situation. His attire, typically reserved for special occasions, underscores the solemnity and the end of an era in the school's history. It symbolizes the loss of French cultural symbols and traditions in the face of external forces.

5. Collective Regret and Acknowledgment of Mistakes

M. Hamel, in his final address, acknowledges the collective regret and mistakes made by both the students and their parents. He highlights the procrastination and lack of commitment to learning, suggesting that these personal shortcomings contributed to the vulnerability of the community when faced with cultural assimilation. This acknowledgment adds a human dimension to the impact of the Franco-Prussian War on the school, emphasizing the role of individual choices in shaping the destiny of the community.

In conclusion, the Franco-Prussian War brought about a significant transformation in the school in Alsace, France, marked by the loss of linguistic autonomy, cultural suppression, and a poignant realization of the importance of language in preserving identity.

Q6. Language is the road map of a culture. It tells you where its people come from and where they are going. Justify this statement with reference to how Hamel demonstrated his last lesson in the story.

1. Cultural Identity Through Language

In M. Hamel's last lesson, language is portrayed as a crucial element of cultural identity. The French language serves as a road map, indicating the origin and direction of the people in Alsace. Hamel emphasizes the beauty, clarity, and logic of the French language, asserting its significance in preserving the cultural heritage of the region.

2. Resistance Against Cultural Assimilation

Hamel's last lesson becomes a symbolic act of resistance against cultural assimilation. By teaching the final lesson in French despite the Prussian mandate, he defiantly upholds the cultural road map of Alsace. The proclamation "Vive La France!" written on the blackboard signifies a commitment to the cultural journey rooted in the French language, resisting the imposition of German.

3. Preservation of Cultural Memory

Through his passionate teaching, Hamel attempts to engrain the French language in the memories of the students. He underscores the importance of holding onto their language as a key to preserving their cultural memory. The lesson becomes a poignant reminder of the cultural road map that is being threatened by external forces.

In conclusion, M. Hamel's last lesson exemplifies how language acts as a road map, shaping cultural identity, resisting assimilation, and preserving the collective memory of a community.


2. Lost Spring

Q7. Rag picking has accomplished itself as a skill and form of art in Seemapuri. What factors are responsible for abject poverty among the slum dwellers?

Ans: Abject poverty in Seemapuri's slums, as portrayed in "Lost Spring," is fueled by several factors. Rampant unemployment, lack of educational opportunities, and the absence of basic amenities contribute to the dire living conditions. The exploitation of children in rag-picking, rather than attending school, further perpetuates the cycle of poverty.

Q8. Saheb’s full name, Saheb-e-Alam, means ‘lord of the universe’. Explain the irony involved in the statement.

Ans: The irony in Saheb's full name, Saheb-e-Alam, meaning 'lord of the universe,' lies in the stark contrast between the grandeur and expansiveness suggested by the title and the harsh, impoverished reality of Saheb's life. While his name implies a position of cosmic significance and authority, Saheb's daily existence revolves around scrounging for gold in garbage dumps, reflecting the irony of his lofty name in the face of his marginalized, impoverished circumstances.

Q9. Why do you think the author uses a hyperbole when he says that in Firozabad, families make ‘bangles for all the women in the land?

Ans: The use of hyperbole in the statement "families make 'bangles for all the women in the land" in Firozabad serves to emphasize the pervasive and extensive nature of the bangle-making industry in the town. It exaggerates the scale of production, suggesting that the majority, if not all, women in the land wear bangles originating from Firozabad. This hyperbolic expression aims to emphasize the town's centrality in the bangle trade, portraying it as a dominant force in supplying this traditional ornament across a wide geographical area.

Q10. ‘She still has bangles on her wrist, but no light in her eyes.’ Mention the health hazards in working in badly lit and poorly ventilated furnaces.

The phrase "She still has bangles on her wrist, but no light in her eyes" reflects the health hazards of working in poorly lit and poorly ventilated glass furnaces. It symbolizes the adverse effects on vision, respiratory health, and overall well-being, portraying the physical and emotional toll of the hazardous working conditions in Firozabad.

Q11.  Write two instances to prove that the young men echo the lament of their elders in Firozabad.

1. The young men in Firozabad express a shared lament when they mention the cyclical challenges of poverty, apathy, greed, and injustice that have trapped their fathers and forefathers. This echoes the generational struggle and the perception that little has changed over time.

2. The resistance to organizing into a cooperative reflects the young men's belief that even if they unite, they would face legal consequences, police brutality, and imprisonment, similar to the experiences of their fathers. This showcases a shared resignation and acceptance of their predicament in Firozabad.


Long Questions 120 words | 5 Marks

Q12. Poverty is not just lack of money; it is not having the capability to realise one’s full potential as a human being. (Amartya Sen). Justify the statement in the light of realising Saheb's & Mukesh's potentials in life.

Ans: Saheb and Mukesh's stories reveal that poverty goes beyond financial constraints, hindering the fulfillment of their true potential.

Lack of Economic Resources:

Saheb, a ragpicker in Seemapuri, and Mukesh, a child laborer in Firozabad, exemplify Amartya Sen's perspective on poverty. Both face economic deprivation, lacking the resources to fulfill basic needs, hindering the realization of their potential.

Limited Educational Opportunities:

Saheb's inability to attend school due to the absence of educational facilities in his neighborhood constrains his learning and growth. Similarly, Mukesh's engagement in hazardous labor prevents him from accessing formal education, limiting his intellectual development.

Constrained Aspirations:

The dreams of Saheb to attend a school if one is built and Mukesh aspiring to be a motor mechanic reflect their constrained aspirations. Limited exposure and opportunities curtail their ability to envision and pursue broader life goals.

Impact on Human Development:

Amartya Sen's notion extends beyond financial constraints to encompass the inhibition of human capabilities. Saheb and Mukesh, constrained by their circumstances, struggle to realize their full potential as human beings, embodying the multidimensional aspect of poverty.

Q13. Explain the societal problem in which the bangle makers of Firozabad are caught in Anees Jung’s ‘Lost Spring’.

Anees Jung's 'Lost Spring' delves into the poignant societal problem plaguing the bangle makers of Firozabad. Trapped in a cycle of poverty, they grapple with discrimination, exploitation, and an absence of opportunities.

Generational Entrapment:

The bangle makers of Firozabad find themselves ensnared in a perpetual cycle of poverty, passed down through generations. Despite their artistic skill, the lack of alternative opportunities and education traps them in a vocation that offers meager returns.

Caste-Based Struggles:

Born into a caste associated with bangle making, the community faces societal discrimination. Limited by their hereditary occupation, they struggle to break free from the predetermined destiny dictated by societal norms.

Exploitation and Lack of Initiative:

Exploited by middlemen, police, and corrupt officials, the bangle makers lack the initiative to organize themselves into cooperatives. The absence of leadership leaves them vulnerable to systemic injustices, reinforcing the cycle of poverty and despair.

Inherent Injustice:

Despite their intricate craftsmanship, the bangle makers remain trapped in destitution, highlighting the inherent injustice ingrained in the social and economic fabric. Anees Jung's narrative highlights the complex web of societal problems that bind the lives of these artisans in 'Lost Spring.'


Deep Water

Q14. “My introduction to the Y.M.CA. swimming pool revived unpleasant memories and stirred childish fears.” Describe the author's nightmarish experience.

The author's nightmarish experience at the YMCA swimming pool began when a larger boy, seemingly friendly, abruptly tossed him into the deep end. The sudden plunge triggered panic as he struggled underwater. Recalling a childhood incident at a California beach where powerful waves overwhelmed him, the author felt a resurgence of terror. The struggle for breath, disorientation, and fear of drowning left an indelible mark, stirring deep-seated childhood fears and making the YMCA pool a haunting reminder of the nightmarish ordeal.

Q15.  Describe both the physical and emotional impacts that the misadventure at the YMCA pool had on the narrator.

Physical Impact:

The misadventure at the YMCA pool had immediate physical consequences for the narrator. When thrown into the deep end, he experienced a moment of panic, swallowing water upon impact. As he sank to the pool's bottom, the lack of air and the struggle to reach the surface resulted in a desperate fight for breath. The physical exertion, coupled with the fear, left him weak, trembling, and vomiting after being rescued.

Emotional Impact:

The emotional impact of the misadventure was profound and long-lasting. The incident revived childhood fears associated with water, particularly from a previous traumatic experience at a California beach. The narrator's initial aversion to the water, stemming from his early years, was intensified. The terror and helplessness he felt during the incident imprinted a lasting fear of water, affecting his emotional well-being for days, leading to a haunting fear and avoidance of water-related activities.


Q16. Getting rid of fear is an extremely difficult task. Elucidate with reference to the chapter “Deep Water”.

In the chapter "Deep Water" by William Douglas, the author vividly describes his intense fear of water, which originated from a traumatic experience in a swimming pool during his childhood. The narrative illustrates the enduring and challenging nature of overcoming fear.

1. Childhood Trauma: The author's fear of water was deeply rooted in a childhood incident where he was thrown into a swimming pool and struggled to stay afloat. This traumatic experience left a lasting imprint on his psyche, making it extremely difficult for him to confront and overcome his fear.

2. Persistence of Fear: Despite attempts to overcome his fear, the author finds that it persists over the years. The haunting memories of the near-drowning incident continued to affect him, even as he engaged with various water-related activities such as fishing and canoeing. The fear became a significant handicap, impacting his enjoyment of these activities.

3. Attempted Solutions: The author tries various methods to conquer his fear, including hiring a swimming instructor and practicing extensively in a controlled environment. However, the fear remains deeply ingrained, resurfacing each time he faces the prospect of being in the water alone.

4. Gradual Progress: The process of overcoming fear is depicted as gradual and challenging. The swimming instructor breaks down the learning process into smaller steps, addressing each fear-inducing aspect individually. It takes months of consistent effort before the author begins to see progress in controlling his panic reactions.

5. Final Triumph: The author's ultimate triumph over his fear comes after a series of deliberate and progressively challenging experiences. From swimming in a pool to crossing a lake and eventually swimming in a glacier-fed lake, each achievement contributes to his growing confidence. The final test involves confronting the fear head-on in a natural setting, symbolizing the complete conquering of his deep-seated terror.

In summary, the chapter "Deep Water" underscores the arduous and lengthy process of overcoming fear, particularly when it is rooted in a traumatic experience. The author's journey reflects the persistence required to gradually dismantle the layers of fear and regain a sense of freedom.

Q17. Roosevelt said, ‘All we have to fear is fear itself.’ Discuss the role of the swimming instructor & the narrator's subsequent efforts in conquering his fear of water.


Roosevelt's famous quote, "All we have to fear is fear itself," becomes a poignant backdrop for the narrative in "Deep Water" by William Douglas. The protagonist, haunted by a childhood near-drowning incident, grapples with an overwhelming fear of water. The subsequent involvement of a swimming instructor becomes a crucial element in his journey towards conquering this deep-seated fear.

Role of the Swimming Instructor:

The swimming instructor plays a pivotal role in the narrator's quest to overcome his fear. By breaking down the learning process into manageable steps, the instructor addresses each fear-inducing aspect individually. The use of a safety belt and controlled exercises gradually desensitizes the narrator to the panic that water induces. The instructor's patient guidance and systematic approach provide the necessary framework for the narrator's gradual progress.

Subsequent Efforts of the Narrator:

The narrator's efforts extend beyond the structured lessons, involving consistent practice and exposure to water in various settings. From controlled pool environments to open lakes and even a glacier-fed lake, each experience contributes to his growing confidence. The narrator's determination to confront and challenge his fear head-on becomes a testament to Roosevelt's idea that fear, when faced directly, loses its power.


Through the collaboration with a skilled instructor and his own persistent efforts, the narrator successfully dismantles the layers of fear associated with water. The journey illustrates that, indeed, the primary obstacle was the fear itself, and by actively engaging with it, the narrator emerges triumphant over his once-crippling phobia.


The Rattrap

Q18. How does the peddler’s conception of the world as a rattrap breed in his mind?

Ans: The peddler's conception of the world as a rattrap develops in his mind through a series of reflections and observations, as described in the story. His realization stems from his own experiences as a struggling peddler, facing hardships and deprivation in his vagabond life. As he plods along the road, left to his own meditations, the monotony and challenges of his existence lead him to a particular line of thought. While thinking about his rattraps, the peddler is struck by the idea that the entire world, with its lands, seas, cities, and villages, serves as a colossal rattrap.

Q19. How was the identity of the peddler brought to light?

The rattrap seller's mistaken identity as Captain von Stahle was exposed in the ironmaster's house. Despite the peddler being groomed and dressed in the ironmaster's clothes, the ironmaster's scrutiny revealed the true nature of the peddler's identity. The ironmaster realized the discrepancy between the peddler's appearance and the expected features of his old regimental comrade, Nils Olof.

Q20. How did the peddler pay his gratitude to ironmaster & his daughter?

The peddler expressed his gratitude to the ironmaster and his daughter by leaving a small package as a Christmas present. The package contained a rattrap and three ten-kronor notes. In a letter, he explained that the rattrap was a Christmas present from a rat (himself) who had been raised to captain, and he wished them well.


Long Questions ( 120 Words | 5 Marks )

Q21. Despite his philosophical insights, the vagabond fails to resist temptations. What would you attribute this to? Explain with reference to any instance from the text.

The Vagabond's Philosophical Insights

The vagabond's philosophical insights, portraying the world as a rattrap, demonstrate a profound contemplation on the challenges of existence. This perspective reflects a keen awareness of life's traps and the temptations that individuals encounter in their journeys.

The Temptation and the Vulnerability

However, despite his philosophical depth, the vagabond's vulnerability becomes evident in a specific instance from the text. When generously welcomed into the cottage by a crofter and provided with hospitality, the allure of immediate gain proves overpowering. The vagabond succumbs to the temptation of stealing a money pouch hanging by the window.

Struggle for Survival vs. Philosophical Reflections

This moment highlights the inherent struggle between survival instincts and philosophical reflections. While the vagabond holds insightful perspectives on the world, the pressing reality of his destitute condition takes precedence. The immediate need for thirty kronor outweighs the broader philosophical musings about the world being a rattrap.

Complexities of Human Behaviour

This instance serves as a poignant illustration of the complexities of human behaviour. It emphasizes that individuals, despite holding profound insights, may succumb to immediate temptations when faced with the harsh realities of their circumstances. The vagabond's actions highlight the constant interplay between higher-level ideals and the pragmatic demands of survival in the intricate tapestry of human experience.

Q22. How did the concept of 'bait' illustrated through the character peddler in the story? Explain with the help of instances given in the story.


The concept of 'bait' is vividly illustrated through the character of the peddler in the story, portraying the enticements and traps that the world presents to individuals. The term 'bait' symbolizes alluring offers and temptations that lead individuals into unforeseen circumstances.

1. Rattraps as Bait: The peddler himself creates rattraps, using them as a metaphor for the larger world. These rattraps, designed to catch rats with cheese and pork, symbolize the enticements that the world offers to people.

2. The Old Man's Hospitality: The old man's generosity and hospitality serve as bait for the peddler. Welcomed into the cottage, the peddler is tempted by the warmth, supper, and the prospect of a comfortable night.

3. The Money Pouch as Temptation: The money pouch hanging by the window becomes a bait for the peddler. Despite his philosophical insights, he succumbs to the temptation, illustrating how immediate gains can overshadow higher principles.

4. The World as a Rattrap: The overarching theme of the world as a rattrap reinforces the idea that everything offered by the world, be it joys or riches, serves as bait to lure individuals into unforeseen traps. The peddler's experiences exemplify how individuals, like rats enticed by the promise of reward, can find themselves ensnared in life's intricate rattraps.

Q23. Both the crofter & Edla Wilmanson were kind towards the peddler. But the peddler's attitude towards the both was a mismatch. Why do you think Edla was more persuasive than the crofter in the transformation of the peddler? Make a comparative answer with instances from the text.


In the narrative, the peddler encounters kindness from both the crofter and Edla Willmansson, yet his response to each differs significantly. While the crofter's generosity provides temporary relief, it is Edla's compassion that leads to a transformative impact on the peddler.

Crofter's Kindness: A Temporary Respite

The crofter at Ramsjo Ironworks extends kindness to the peddler by providing shelter, supper, and even sharing the earnings from his remarkable cow. However, the peddler's interaction with the crofter seems to be more transactional. Despite the crofter's generosity, the peddler doesn't form a personal connection or express deep gratitude. The crofter's kindness offers a temporary respite, but it doesn't deeply impact the peddler's perspective on life.

Edla Willmansson's Persuasion: A Genuine Connection

Edla Willmansson, on the other hand, goes beyond mere generosity. Her approach is marked by genuine compassion and an attempt to understand the peddler's predicament. Edla sees beyond his ragged exterior, addressing him as "Captain" and expressing sympathy for his hardships. Her kindness is not just material; she persuades him to accept her family's hospitality during Christmas. Edla's sincere efforts at human connection and her genuine concern for the peddler contribute significantly to his transformation.

Comparative Analysis: Edla's Impactful Approach

While both the crofter and Edla show kindness, Edla's approach is more persuasive in transforming the peddler. Her genuine empathy and efforts to connect with him on a personal level go beyond material assistance. Edla's persuasion is rooted in understanding the peddler's emotional needs, offering him not just physical comfort but a sense of belonging and compassion. This stark contrast in approach makes Edla's impact more profound, contributing to the peddler's unexpected transformation from a mere vagabond to someone capable of reciprocating kindness with a thoughtful Christmas present.



Q24. How did Gandhiji tell the court that he was involved in ' a conflict of duties'?

Ans: In the Champaran court, Gandhi explained that he was involved in a "conflict of duties" as he pleaded guilty. He clarified that, on one hand, he did not want to set a bad example as a lawbreaker, respecting lawful authority. On the other hand, he felt a duty to render "humanitarian and national service" for which he had come to Champaran. Gandhi emphasized that his disobedience was not due to a lack of respect for lawful authority but stemmed from obedience to what he referred to as the "higher law of our being" – the voice of conscience. This expression encapsulated Gandhi's philosophy of Satyagraha, where individuals prioritize their moral convictions over obedience to laws they consider unjust or oppressive.

Q25. What were the terms of the indigo contract between the British landlords and the Indian farmers?

Ans: The indigo contract in Champaran mandated sharecroppers to cultivate 15% of their land with indigo, surrendering the entire harvest as rent. The agreement became more complicated when synthetic indigo was introduced, leading to landlords seeking compensation for releasing sharecroppers from the arrangement.

Q26. 'The battle of Champaran is won.' When and why did Gandhi utter these words?

Ans: Gandhi uttered the words "The battle of Champaran is won" when lawyers, including Rajendra Prasad and others, agreed to court arrest and join him in jail. This occurred after Gandhi's disobedience, the spontaneous peasant demonstration, and the summons to court, forcing the authorities to confront the collective strength of nonviolent resistance.

Q27. What made the Lieutenant Governor drop the case against Gandhi?

The Lieutenant Governor dropped the case against Gandhi in Champaran due to the overwhelming support from the local population and the formidable presence of thousands of peasants demonstrating outside the courthouse. Faced with this mass mobilization and potential unrest, the authorities found themselves powerless without Gandhi's cooperation, leading to the decision to drop the case.


Long Question | 120 words | 5 Marks

Q28. Gandhi not only alleviated the economic conditions of the Champaran people but also their social and cultural background. Justify.

Ans: Educational Reforms:

Gandhi's commitment to social transformation in Champaran extended to addressing educational gaps. He appealed for teachers, leading to the establishment of primary schools, aiming to uplift the community's educational standards.

Health and Hygiene Initiatives:

Recognizing the poor health conditions, Gandhi took steps to improve healthcare. A volunteered doctor provided medical assistance, and basic medicines were distributed. Efforts to enhance personal cleanliness and community sanitation were also emphasized.

Empowering Women:

Gandhi's concern for women's conditions in Champaran manifested in instructions to address clothing issues. This initiative aimed at empowering women and improving their living conditions, contributing to broader societal upliftment.

Self-Reliance and Holistic Transformation:

Gandhi's emphasis on self-reliance went beyond economic aspects, fostering a holistic societal transformation. His vision integrated education, health, and empowerment initiatives, aiming to break social and cultural backwardness and create an inclusive and empowered community.

Conclusion :

The Champaran episode exemplifies Gandhi's multifaceted approach, not only addressing economic injustices but also laying the foundation for comprehensive social development. His initiatives formed an integral part of India's journey towards independence.

Q29. How did Civil disobedience triumph for the first time in India?

The triumph of civil disobedience in Champaran marked a pivotal moment in India's struggle for independence. Gandhi's principled stand and united peasant support showcased the power of nonviolent resistance.

1. Gandhi's Defiance and Court Summons:

  • Responding to indigo sharecroppers' grievances, Gandhi refused to leave Champaran, defying British orders.

  • Summons to court followed, marking an act of civil disobedience against unjust authority.

2. Spontaneous Peasant Support:

  • News of Gandhi's summons spread rapidly among peasants.

  • Thousands demonstrated outside the courthouse, showcasing massive and spontaneous support for Gandhi.

3. Authorities Powerless without Cooperation:

- Faced with united peasant strength, British authorities were powerless.

- Officials requested trial delay, acknowledging potential unrest without Gandhi's cooperation.

4. Case Dropped - Triumph of Civil Disobedience:

- Influenced by the situation and support for Gandhi, the Lieutenant-Governor dropped the case.

- First modern instance of civil disobedience's triumph in India, signaling the effectiveness of nonviolent resistance.

5. Impact and Symbolism:

- Champaran episode symbolized civil disobedience's power against British rule.

- Inspired confidence in peaceful mobilization to challenge colonial authority.


- Champaran's success laid the foundation for Gandhi's Satyagraha philosophy, influencing future movements in India's struggle for independence.




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